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Purple viper's-bugloss

Echium plantagineum
Borage family (Boraginaceae)


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Echium plantagineum, commonly known as purple viper's-bugloss or Patterson's curse, is a species of the genus Echium native to western and southern Europe (from southern England south to Iberia and east to the Crimea), northern Africa, and southwestern Asia (east to Georgia). It has also been introduced to Australia, South Africa, and United States, where it is an invasive weed. Due to a high concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, it is poisonous to grazing livestock, especially those with simple digestive systems, such as horses.

Description

Echium plantagineum is a winter annual plant growing to 20–60 cm tall, with rough, hairy, lanceolate leaves up to 14 cm long. The flowers are purple, 15–20 mm long, with all the stamens protruding, and borne on a branched spike.

Taxonomy

The Latin genus name comes from the Greek word ekhis, which means viper (a type of snake), possibly due to the seeds resembling a viper's head or the forking at the end of the thin flower style resembles a viper's tongue. The plant roots when eaten with wine, are claimed to provide a folk cure for a snakebite. The Latin specific epithet plantagineum refers to the leaves of the plant, which are similar to those of a plantain.

Invasive species

E. plantagineum has become an invasive species in Australia, where it is also known as Salvation Jane (particularly in South Australia), blueweed, Lady Campbell weed, Paterson's curse and Riverina bluebell.

In the United States, the species has become naturalised in parts of California, Oregon, and some eastern states and areas such as northern Michigan. In Oregon, it has been declared a noxious weed.

Toxicity

E. plantagineum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, so is poisonous to nonruminants. When eaten in large quantities, it causes reduced livestock weight, and death in severe cases, due to liver damage. Paterson's curse can also kill horses, and irritate the udders of dairy cows and the skin of humans. After the 2003 Canberra bushfires, a large bloom of the plant occurred on the burned land, and many horses became ill and died from grazing on it. Because the alkaloids can also be found in the nectar of Paterson's curse, the honey made from it should be blended with other honeys to dilute the toxins.

References

External links

  • Media related to Echium plantagineum at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Echium plantagineum at Wikispecies
  • Echium plantagineum in the CalPhotos photo database, University of California, Berkeley

Where?

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WWW info

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Size Shape Shape Colour Ranging
Size  Middle      Shape  Lip         Shape  Filled      Colour Ranging  Are
Middle Lip Filled Are
1 LookAlikes (LA):
Viper's Bugloss
Purple viper's-bugloss
Echium plantagineum [L.]
Wegerichblättriger Natternkopf
Vipérine faux-plantain
Viperina piantaginea
Buglosa
Echium plantagineum [L.]



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